The frequency of consumption of beverages was evaluated by applying the qualitative questionnaire specially designed to measure the habitual intake of beverages in the participants of this study. A retrospective structured interview was asked about the frequency of consumption in the last month. The list used included 39 beverages, grouped into 15 categories following the ANIBES study methodology (18).
For each drink, the participants had to answer for the frequency of intake (daily, weekly or monthly) and the number of times of that frequency selected with options from 1 to 10. Likewise, the participant could declare himself a non-consumer of some drink. Drink in the last month. Because it is a qualitative questionnaire, the portion or quantity consumed was not asked; therefore, the nutritional value of these beverages could not be obtained.
Training of enumerators
The training and standardization of the interviewers were carried out in three stages; in the first one, it was addressed to the interviewers and supervisors who participated in a pilot test in the city of Caracas. Once these results were obtained, the necessary improvements were made. In a second stage, all the interviewers and supervisors who participated in the fieldwork were trained; this training covered the following aspects: the objective of the research, role of the interviewer, approach and selection of the sample subject, description and form of application of the instruments, use of the interviewer’s manuals, use of the help instruments in obtaining data and resolution of doubts. Finally, the third stage was dedicated to standardizing the application of instruments with practical sessions that sought to evaluate the execution, clarify doubts and reinforce the procedures.
Data collection and quality control
The field activity was carried out between May and August 2015. Food intake was evaluated during two visits to the home of the sample subject. Data collection was done so that every day of the week was included and randomly distributed among the study participants. In total, 2264 reminders corresponding to 1132 sample subjects were collected.
To ensure quality control of the data, several strategies were used during the different stages of the study. In the first place, the nutrition team made several visits to each city, and the data collection process was supervised in the field to ensure adequate quality in obtaining them.
After collection, each survey was reviewed by the supervisor in the field in the interviewer’s presence to request clarifications or notice omissions. After this verification, the coordinator sent it to the primary research center, where it was coded and later thoroughly reviewed by the filing team, ensuring that all fields were complete. Finally, the team of nutritionists verified that the record of reminders was adequate.
In any of the cases, when a survey did not meet the quality criteria due to lack of information or clarity, it was returned to the previous step to assess whether the data could be corrected; if this was not possible, the survey was excluded from the final analysis.
Data processing and validation
Transforming the practical measures to the objective amount consumed was carried out by a nutritionist-dietician and corroborated by another colleague. A double-check was also performed for the data transcription process.
After transforming the data into calories and nutrients for each food, the information was added by mealtime and subsequently at the individual level. In addition, the average intake was calculated for the two visits.
The database was also subjected to a quality control process to verify out-of-range values or atypical data. Given the non-normality of the distribution of the consumption data, a logarithmic transformation was carried out using the Multiple Source Method (MSM). The average habitual intake corrected for each of the quantitative data was obtained. This method was developed by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and consisted of a mixed method of several steps that requires the application of at least two R24h in a sample to obtain a probabilistic consumption model that is then transformed into a normal distribution with which a better approximation to the usual intake of each person is achieved.
Eating a well-balanced diet can help you lower your risk for various diseases and help you maintain a healthy weight.
There are certain occasions when it is even. It is essential to make sure you eat a healthy diet, such as losing weight or watching what you eat because you are pregnant. However, it is essential to eat a balanced diet throughout your life, no matter how old you are; It is never the wrong time to change and improve your eating habits.
Why is healthy eating important?
There is strong evidence that eating a healthy diet can reduce your risk of obesity and diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and some types of cancer.
The foods you eat contain different nutrients, which are necessary for many vital processes in your body.
The most essential nutrients in your diet include the following:
Carbs – These give you energy.
Proteins: These are another energy source and are essential for the growth and restoration of all tissues in your body.
Fats: They are a very concentrated source of energy and perform other functions, including helping to transport essential vitamins throughout your body.
Vitamins and Minerals: Vitamins and minerals are essential to keep your body healthy and functioning correctly.
Another essential element in your diet is fibre. Fibre is not classified as a nutrient, but it is critical to keeping your digestive system healthy, and certain types of fibre can help control your blood cholesterol levels.
A balanced diet
You need to eat a variety of foods to get all the nutrients and fibre your body needs. The five main food groups are:
starchy foods, including bread, pasta, rice, and potatoes
fruits and vegetables
milk and other dairy products
meat, fish, eggs, beans, and other non-dairy sources of protein
foods high in fat or sugar
Eating a suitable variety of foods from these groups will provide your body with everything it needs to stay healthy.
The image below shows the ratio of how many foods you should eat from each of the different groups to enjoy a balanced and healthy diet. This includes everything you eat during the day, including snacks and drinks. You don’t have to stop eating the unhealthy foods you like; just adjust the amount you eat in proportion to the number of healthy foods in your diet.